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Somalia NEWS

NFE/5.0en-USnews-webmaster@google.com2019 Google Inc.Wed, 13 Feb 2019 15:10:53 GMTGoogle News
Actor dreams of second chance as Somalia rebuilds its theater  Reuters

Abdulle Abdi Mohamud stands outside Somalia's National Theater seven years after a suicide bomb attack shut it down, and dares to dream of an unlikely ...

Somalia: Humanitarian Snapshot (as of 13 February 2019) - Somalia  ReliefWeb

English Infographic on Somalia about Education, Food and Nutrition, Children, IDPs, Drought and more; published on 13 Feb 2019 by OCHA.

Amisom to close Somalia bases, change fighting tactic  Daily Monitor

Kampala. The African Union troops in Somalia will close some of their forward operating bases (FoBs) at the end of the month when further reduction of 1,000 ...

Daily Monitor
Somalia opens offshore licensing round  Offshore Oil and Gas Magazine

Somalia is inviting bids for 15 blocks across various basins under the country's 2019 offshore licensing round.

Offshore Oil and Gas Magazine
Somalia: Refugee returnees to Somalia at 31 December 2018 - Somalia  ReliefWeb

English Infographic on Somalia and 11 other countries about Protection and Human Rights and Refugees; published on 31 Dec 2018 by UNHCR.

Queensland girls subjected to female genital mutilation in Somalia, court told  The Guardian

Mother is on trial in Brisbane after girls were allegedly taken from grandmother's house and subjected to procedure.

The Guardian
US says new airstrike in Somalia kills 8 al-Shabaab fighters  News24

The United States military says it has killed eight al-Shabaab extremists with an airstrike in southern Somalia.

Reckless to walk away from Somalia, says Kenya's Ruto  BBC News

Kenya's Deputy President William Ruto explains the country's long-term strategy on Somalia.

BBC News
Christian Mother from Somalia Beaten, Raped in Kenya  Christianheadlines.com

NAIROBI, Kenya, February 12, 2019 (Morning Star News) – Somali Muslims who beat and raped a Christian mother of four last month began sending ...

'Shocking' judgment for Somali asylum seekers | News | Africa  Mail and Guardian

The eight applicants' experiences of persecution in Somalia include threats, intimidation, close friends and family being killed during the civil war and being ...

Mail and Guardian
Somalia innovators inspired by war on terror  africanews

Millions of dollars are being spent to fight terrorism in Somalia. For years, Al shabaab has been terrorizing Somalis but the ultimate price to end this is paid by the ...

U20 game in Somalia to be first international for 30 years  BBC Sport

An under-20 friendly against Eritrea on 16 February will be the first international football match in Somalia for over 30 years.

BBC Sport
Car bomb kills at least 11 and port manager shot dead in Somalia  The Guardian

Al-Shabaab says it carried out Mogadishu bombing and shot manager of Bossaso port.

The Guardian
Car bomb explodes in Somalia, killing at least 10 people  CNN

Mogadishu, Somalia (CNN) A car bomb exploded at a crowded shopping mall in Mogadishu, the Somali capital on Monday morning, killing at least ten people ...

30 al-Shabab militants killed in joint operation in southern Somalia  The New Times

Government forces have been on major operations to flush out al-Shabab militants from central and southern regions.

The New Times
Al-Shabab Battles IS in Northeastern Somalia  VOA News

The al-Shabab militant group has scaled up its attacks against pro-Islamic State fighters in the northeastern mountainous Somali region of Bari, experts say.

VOA News
US General: Strikes in Somalia Won't Stop Al-Shabab  VOA News

The U.S. military's air campaign against al-Shabab in Somalia will not stop the jihadists, a top U.S. general said Thursday as he called on the east African ...

VOA News
Somalia: Car Bomb Blast Kills Security Official in Mogadishu  AllAfrica - Top Africa News

A senior Somali police officer was killed in a car bomb explosion in Mogadishu, witnesses said, the latest in a series of attacks by the Al-Qaeda-linked Al ...

AllAfrica - Top Africa News
Inside the Secretive US Air Campaign In Somalia  The Nation

Since Trump took office, figuring out whom the US is killing and why has become nearly impossible.

The Nation
US airstrikes kill 12 al-Shabaab militants in southeastern Somalia - Xinhua | English.news.cn  Xinhua

MOGADISHU, Feb. 13 (Xinhua) -- The U.S. army said Wednesday that it conducted two airstrikes in southeastern Somalia on Monday, killing 12 al-Shabaab ...

American Airstrike in Somalia Kills 52 Shabab Extremists, U.S. Military Says  The New York Times

JOHANNESBURG — The American military on Saturday said it had carried out its deadliest airstrike in Somalia in months, killing 52 Shabab extremists after a ...

The New York Times
Deadly Nairobi attack comes as U.S. military ramps up airstrikes against al-Shabab in Somalia  The Washington Post

The U.S. air assault on al-Shabab has expanded in the past year under Trump. Some call it whack-a-mole, with airstrikes killing some and radicalizing others.

The Washington Post
13 al-Shabaab fighters killed in Somalia - US army  News24

At least 13 fighters, part of the armed al-Shabaab group, have been killed in an airstrike outside the Somali capital, Mogadishu, the US army has said.

Make Somalia more stable, habitable to stem terror threat  The Standard

The fact that Kenya was again the victim of terror in recent weeks should not cause us to overlook the important progress being made.

The Standard
Somalia must ensure industrialisation before regional economic integration  TRT World

With closer relations among countries in the Horn of Africa, there are talks of great economic integration, but Somalia would be the loser if that went ahead too ...

TRT World
Judge releases man facing deportation to Somalia  Star Tribune

An immigration judge approved the release of Abdulkadir Sharif Abdi on Tuesday in a courtroom full of cheering friends and relatives, the latest twist in his long ...

Star Tribune
Somalia's government reassures UN of its solidarity and support - Somalia  ReliefWeb

Mogadishu, 15 January 2019: Somalia's Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, Ahmed Isse Awad, met with senior United Nations officials in ...

Africa: Somalia Lobbies AU Summit for International Debt Cancellation  AllAfrica.com

Somali government officials, international development partners and civil society organisations engaged in humanitarian operations in Somalia met at the ...

America's Other Endless War: Battling al-Shabaab in Somalia  The Wall Street Journal

The death of Staff Sgt. Alex Conrad puts into sharp relief the cost of America's long fight against the militant group. It is just one of a series of under-the-radar ...

The Wall Street Journal
It's just a short step to Somalia joining the EAC  The New Times

Somalia's long held ambitions to integrate into the East African Community remain on course to be realised. It is just a short step to their realisation if one looks at ...

The New Times
Change of Her Majesty's Ambassador to Somalia: February 2019  GOV.UK

Mr Ben Fender OBE has been appointed Her Majesty's Ambassador to the Federal Republic of Somalia.

US says airstrike killed 24 militants in Somalia  EWN

The military's Africa Command (Africom) said in a statement that no civilians were believed to have been killed or injured in the air strike in the Hiran region.

US No Longer Announcing Deaths, Damage in Somalia Airstrikes  VOA News

The U.S. military says it has carried out two new airstrikes in Somalia against the al-Shabab extremist group but will no longer give details on fighters killed or ...

VOA News
Somalia: car bomb explosion kills at least two  africanews

At least two people were killed and five wounded on Tuesday in a suicide car bomb attack near the ministry of petroleum in the Somali capital, Mogadishu.

U.S. Developing Supply Route Along Dangerous Stretch From Djibouti to Somalia  Foreign Policy

The U.S. Defense Department is in the early stages of a project to develop land-based supply routes from the main American military base in Africa, Camp ...

Foreign Policy
Somalia can now appoint foreigner as central bank governor  africanews

Previously only a citizen could be appointed to the role as is the case across much of the continent. The vote was held in the lower house of the parliament.

Somalia declared the most corrupt country in the world: survey  EWN

LONDON - Somalia is the most corrupt country in the world, according to a new survey by a corruption watchdog. Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad and ...

Debt Cancellation for Somalia  CADTM.org

You will find below a report on Somalia's sovereign debt which was issued by a consortium of NGOs. While some of their recommendations and their (...)

Qatar gives Somalia armored vehicles  Reuters

DOHA (Reuters) - Qatar donated 68 armored vehicles to Somalia on Thursday, Qatar's defense ministry said, a sign that Doha is pushing for influence in the ...

'Open, cordial, and frank discussions' held over future Somalia-UN relationship  UN News

Discussions described in a joint statement as “open, cordial and frank”, took place on Wednesday, between Somalia's top two politicians and the UN political ...

UN News
Somalia: Chinese deal angers fishing communities, sparks concerns over sovereignty and piracy  RFI English

A new fishing deal signed between the Somalia government and vessels tied to the China Overseas Fisheries Association raises serious questions.

RFI English
Appeal court upholds stiff sentence for Toronto man arrested trying to join terrorist group in Somalia  The Globe and Mail

A panel of three judges of the Ontario Court of Appeal upheld both the conviction and sentence. saying stiff penalties are necessary to deter similar would-be ...

The Globe and Mail
Kavan Brissett death: Sheffield stabbing inquiries made in Somalia  BBC News

Kavan Brissett was stabbed in the chest in a Sheffield alleyway nearly six months ago.

BBC News
AFRICOM to Resume Announcing Somalia Airstrike Death Tolls  VOA News

One official said the message will be refined to "place less emphasis on the number of militants killed and place more context on how these strikes are helping ...

VOA News
Cholera situation in Somalia, December 2018 - Somalia  ReliefWeb

English Infographic on Somalia about Health, Children and Epidemic; published on 31 Dec 2018 by WHO.

Qatar donates armoured vehicles to Somalia  defenceWeb

Qatar donated 68 armoured vehicles to Somalia on Thursday, Qatar's defence ministry said. The vehicles will strengthen the Somali state, which is battling an ...

Somalia: UK Issues Travel Warning Over Insecurity in Somalia and Somaliland  AllAfrica - Top Africa News

The United Kingdom has issued a travelling warning to all citizens hoping to visits Somaliland Somaliland.

AllAfrica - Top Africa News
2019 Somalia Humanitarian Response Plan, January - December 2019 - Somalia  ReliefWeb

English Appeal on Somalia about Agriculture, Climate Change and Environment, Aged Persons, Children, Drought, Epidemic and more; published on 20 Jan ...

Nairobi hotel attacks: Why al-shabaab targets Kenya  Quartz

Al-Shabaab is partly motivated to attack Kenya because of the benefits to recruitment and fundraising that are a partial byproduct of international press coverage.

Lift UN arms embargo and see how far we’ll go in anti-terror fight  The East African

The Somali ambassador to Kenya Mohamoud Ahmed Nur spoke to Fred Oluoch about regional security, Somalia politics and bilateral relations.

The East African
ISIS recruitment drive in Somalia could prove 'massive threat to the US presence' in the region  Fox News

The expansion of the ISIS branch in Somalia poses a significant global threat, experts say.

Fox News
Somalia opens first offshore licensing round  Oil Review Africa

Somalia's first offshore hydrocarbon licensing round was officially launched, on 7 February 2019, at a conference held at the Claridge hotel in London, UK.

Oil Review Africa
Deadly car bomb blast in Somalia’s capital, say police  The Seattle Times

NAIROBI, Kenya (AP) — Somalia's homegrown extremist rebels, al-Shabab, have claimed responsibility for a car bomb explosion on Monday that killed at least ...

The Seattle Times
Al-Shaabab returnee says he met Dusit attacker in Somalia  Daily Nation

Former Al-Shabaab fighter recognises one of the terrorists in Dusit terror attack.

Daily Nation
Breaking: al-Shabaab releases video of attacks in Somalia (warning: graphic content)  NEWSREP

Since the beginning of 2019, al-Shabaab has been active with several high-profile attacks, chief among them the DusitD2 attack. In January, three.

Yoweri Museveni: There is no organised authority in Somalia  Daily Nation

Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni has called Somalia a country with no state and which lacks “organised authority” in a televised speech in the capital, ...

Daily Nation
Somalia shooting: 'I closed his eyes, covered him' – friend of slain Maltese port manager  Malta Independent Online

A friend of murdered Maltese national Paul Anthony Formosa who was with him in his last minutes has told The Malta Independent that she “protected” Paul's ...

Malta Independent Online
Somalia: New Puntland president appoints leaner cabinet  Garowe Online

GAROWE, Puntland - Puntland president, Said Abdullahi Deni has named a leaner cabinet as Somalia's northeastern oil-rich region attempts to establish its first ...

Garowe Online
Suicide car bomb explosion in Somalia leaves casualties: police  The Standard

Suicide car bomb exploded outside a military base for Ethiopian soldiers in southern Somalia on Saturday, leaving an unspecified number of casualties.

The Standard
The Saga of Mukhtar Robow and Somalia's Fractious Politics  War on the Rocks

Much has changed for Mukhtar “Abu Mansur” Robow, a key founding member of the Somali jihadist organization al-Shabaab, over the past decade.

War on the Rocks
Somalia’s Capital Struggles with Trash Problems  Voice of America

People in Mogadishu have been leaving useless waste on the city's once-beautiful coast. Recently, the Somali government announced creation of two waste ...

Voice of America
Somalia, aid agencies seek $1bn to support 3.4 million people  The New Times

Somalia and aid agencies operating in the country on Monday launched 2019 Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP), seeking $1.08 billion to provide support to ...

The New Times
Is Nicholas Haysom a Victim of U.S. ‘Dual Track’ Policy on Somalia?  International Policy Digest

It was September 2010, when the then US Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, Johnnie Carson, revealed the Obama administration's US foreign policy ...

International Policy Digest
Somalia's Humanitarian Response Plan for 2019  africanews

The Federal Government of Somalia and aid agencies launched the 2019 Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) on Monday this week (January 21), calling on ...

Somalia Inches Closer to Reaping Petrol Dollars  AllAfrica - Top Africa News

Somalia is set to inch close to oil exploration with the unveiling of the block delineation and legal and regulatory framework to guide the sector on Thursday.

AllAfrica - Top Africa News
Maltese man's shooting in Somalia was 'motivated by economics, not politics'  Times of Malta

The Al Shabaab killing of a Maltese port manager in Somalia was not typical of the terrorist group and pointed to economic, rather than political, motives, ...

Times of Malta
Nine countries and 7,000 kms; Asad's journey from Somalia to Europe | France | Médecins Sans Frontières  Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) International

Asad is 20 years old and from Somalia. He was forced to flee his country because his life was in grave danger. He has crossed countries at war, several oceans ...

Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) International
UAE’s Relations with Somalia Are Floundering Over Qatar  Frontera

Since the election of the new Somali President in 2017, the country's relationship with the UAE has deteriorated steadily. The wealthy Gulf state seems ...

Senate declares London summit on Somalia Oil "unconstitutional"  Garowe Online

MOGADISHU, Somalia - The Senate has on Tuesday warned that upcoming London conference on Somalia oil could have “extremely serious” consequences, ...

Garowe Online
Ex-Somalia President Sheikh Sharif sets eye on Presidency  The Standard

Members of the militia still control large parts of rural Southern and Central Somalia.

The Standard
Somaliland wants sale of military equipment to Somalia scrutinised  Daily Nation

With police reports that the guns used by terrorists in Nairobi's DusitD2 hotel complex attack belonged to Somalia government, Somaliland now wants any sale, ...

Daily Nation
Somalia President calls Uhuru, offers support in fight against al Shabaab  The Star, Kenya

Somalia President Mohamed Farmaajo has said his government is ready to cooperate with Kenya to eliminate terrorism."I spoke on the phone with [President] ...

The Star, Kenya
Somalia: Puntland's cabinet ministers officially takes oath  Garowe Online

GAROWE, Puntland - The members of the new Puntland's leaner cabinet have officially taken the oath of office on Tuesday during an occasion held at the ...

Garowe Online
East Africa: EAC Review Somalia's Bid to Join the Regional Block  AllAfrica.com

The East African Community (EAC) member states review Somalia's application to join the block.

Somalia named as world's most corrupt country, Denmark the least, while US is 'one to watch'  Daily Mail

Somalia is the most corrupt country in the world, Denmark the least, while America's falling score is a 'red flag', according to a global corruption watchdog.

Daily Mail
Somalia: Al Shabaab seizes military pick-up vehicle in fighting near Mogadishu  Mareeg Media

MOGADISHU – Somali armed group Al Shabaab has claimed to have seized a military pick-up with an anti-aircraft gun, after fighting near the capital of ...

Mareeg Media
Somalia: Problem Identified, Solution Unknown  Strategy Page

Al Shabaab related deaths declined 15 percent in 2018 compared to 2017 In addition to 700 fewer deaths in 2018, there were about seven percent fewer violent ...

Strategy Page
Somalia: Arrivals from Yemen at 31 December 2018 - Somalia  ReliefWeb

A *service* provided by. ReliefWeb has been the leading online source for reliable and timely humanitarian information on global crises and disasters since 1996.

Canadian journalist who was kidnapped in Somalia set to speak at TRU  CFJC Today Kamloops

KAMLOOPS — More than 10 years ago, journalist Amanda Lindhout was kidnapped and held hostage in Somalia. In March, she'll be speaking about it at ...

CFJC Today Kamloops
Dowlada Somalia oo hoos-u-dhigtay saamiga ay ku bixineyso shidaalka  Garowe Online

MUQDISHO, Somalia - Todobaadkii hore dowlada Soomaaliya ayaa caasimada UK ee London ku qabatay shir looga hadlay shidaalka, kaasi oo lagu soo ...

Garowe Online
Somalia: Puntland on the path to universal suffrage in 2023  Garowe Online

GAROWE, Puntland - Somalia's northeastern Puntland State is walking on the path to a democratic, multiparty political system and to move away from the ...

Garowe Online
NEXT Plans start to repatriate Maltese man killed in Somalia  Times of Malta

The body of Paul Anthony Formosa, the Maltese port manager murdered in Somalia, will be repatriated by his employer, P&O Ports. A Foreign Affairs Ministry ...

Times of Malta
120 Ghanaian police officers heading to Somalia  Myjoyonline.com

Ghana is set to deploy to Somalia, a contingent of 160 police personnel from the country's Formed Police Unit (FPU).

Somalia declares UN envoy persona non grata  The Associated Press

NAIROBI, Kenya (AP) — Somalia's government has ordered the United Nations envoy to the country to leave, amid questions over the arrest of the al-Shabab ...

The Associated Press
Somalia Women football boss flees country after unearthing graft in local football association  Tuko.co.ke

Tuko.co.ke News ☛ The Head of the women football in Somalia Shaima Mohamed says her life is in danger after reporting the local football Association to FIFA ...

Museveni holds bilateral talks with Presidents Tshisekedi, Uhuru and Somalia's Mohamed  kampalapost.com

By Kampala Post Reporter. Addis Ababa. At the end of the 32nd Summit of African Union Heads of State, President Museveni has held a couple of bilateral ...

Ilhan Omar Endorsed Somalia’s New President. Four Days Later, Omar’s Brother-in-Law Had a Powerful Job in His Administration | Self-Evident  PJ Media

Rep. Ilhan Omar (D-MN) became the first Somali-American legislator in United States' history when Minnesota's House District 60B elected her on November 8, ...

PJ Media
Muslim community condemns killing of Maltese man in Somalia  Malta Independent Online

The Muslim community has condemned the killing of a Maltese man in Somalia. In a statement, Imam Mohammed Elsadi said the killing was received “with ...

Malta Independent Online
Car bomb outside Ethiopian army base kills at least 10 in Somalia  Garowe Online

BARDERE, Somalia - A car bomb targeting a sprawling Ethiopian military outpost in Somalia killed at least 10 people and wounded several others on Saturday, ...

Garowe Online
Australian photographer kidnapped in Somalia with a $2M AUD ransom explains how he escaped  Daily Mail

Nigel Brennan was in 2008 taken hostage by Somalian rebels during a trip to the war-torn country to take photos with his colleague Canadian journalist Amanda ...

Daily Mail
Battle of El Adde: Many questions still linger 3 years after deadly attack  Daily Nation

Defence ministry has never given an official report of the worst military defeat.

Daily Nation
Somali Christian mother beaten and raped in Kenya  Evangelical Focus

A Christian mother of four from Somalia, was beaten and raped in Kenya by Somali Muslims, who began sending threatening messages more than a year ago at ...

Evangelical Focus
Kenya asks UN to finance Somalia war against Shabaab  Capital FM Kenya

BRUSSELS, Jan 26 - Kenya has urged the United Nations to finance the continental counter-terrorism mission in Somalia, arguing that this will stop the - Kenya ...

Capital FM Kenya
U.S. army intensifies airstrikes in Somalia  Horseed Media

The U.S. military said it intensified airstrikes in Somalia in the past two days as part of the efforts to weaken the al-Shabab's grip on the Horn of Africa…

Horseed Media
Somalia: Somali Oil Conference Protest in London  Geeska Afrika

LONDON (HAN) February 7th, 2019. Public Diplomacy and Regional Security. Somalia is having Oil Conference in London. They say they won't allow bidding ...

Geeska Afrika
Somalia: AFRICOM to Resume Announcing Somalia Airstrike Death Tolls  AllAfrica - Top Africa News

U.S. Africa Command, which oversees U.S. military operations on the continent, will again release the number of enemy fighters killed and damage information ...

AllAfrica - Top Africa News
Refugee Blues  Salt Lake Magazine

Isha Shire wants to be a cop. “Yeah, you risk your life and everything,” says the 19-year-old Somalian Bantu refugee, “but you help so much.”When Shire told her ...

Salt Lake Magazine
Somalia- Ethiopia ex-official pleads not guilty to fomenting ethnic violence  Horseed Media

A former Ethiopian administrator pleaded not guilty on Wednesday to charges of instigating ethnic violence in an eastern region…

Horseed Media
FGM on Qld girls was 'from God': mother  NEWS.com.au

A Queensland woman accused of arranging for her two daughters to undergo female genital mutilation claimed what happened to them was "from God", a court ...

A Terror Case the "Travel Ban" Would Have Prevented  Immigration Blog

A Somali terrorist case shows why the ongoing legal challenge to the "travel ban" against eight countries is so wrong-headed.

Immigration Blog

Somalia Videos

Farmaajo isn't the last hope for Somalia
Farmaajo isn't the last hope for Somalia
They Said \
They Said \"If You Want Anarchy, Go To Somalia\" — So I Did
The  civil war in Somalia - family torn apart | DW Documentary
The civil war in Somalia - family torn apart | DW Documentary
NEED TO KNOW | The ghost city: Inside Mogadishu, Somalia | PBS
NEED TO KNOW | The ghost city: Inside Mogadishu, Somalia | PBS
15 Things You Didn't Know About Somalia
15 Things You Didn't Know About Somalia
How Somalia’s Pirates Make Money
How Somalia’s Pirates Make Money
Somalia debt relief
Somalia debt relief
Driving In Somalia - Mogadishu Streets
Driving In Somalia - Mogadishu Streets
Russian Navy vs Somalia pirates
Russian Navy vs Somalia pirates
Tourism in Somalia | Africa 54 |
Tourism in Somalia | Africa 54 |

Somalia Images

Somalia - kids playing game | Frank Keillor | Flickr
Somalia - kids playing game | Frank Keillor | Flickr
Ugandan military police train for future AMISOM mission ...
Ugandan military police train for future AMISOM mission ...
Recipes - My Somali Food
Recipes - My Somali Food
Mogadishu aid flight 019 | Oxfam aid for Somalia is loaded ...
Mogadishu aid flight 019 | Oxfam aid for Somalia is loaded ...
Zooming into the Past
Zooming into the Past
Somali language - Wikipedia
Somali language - Wikipedia
Jamaame – Wikipedia
Jamaame – Wikipedia
Welcome to Himstedt Heaven
Welcome to Himstedt Heaven
Fotoausstellung Pseudolithos
Fotoausstellung Pseudolithos
RAOnline EDU: Afrika - Kenia - Rift Valley: Das ...
RAOnline EDU: Afrika - Kenia - Rift Valley: Das ...

Somalia WebSites


Somalia Wiki

Somalia ( so-MAH-lee-ə; Somali: Soomaaliya; Arabic: الصومال‎, translit. aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of Somalia (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya; Arabic: جمهورية الصومال الفيدرالية‎, translit. Jumhūrīyah aṣ-Ṣūmāl al-Fīdirālīyah; Italian: Repubblica Federale di Somalia), is a country with its territory located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Guardafui Channel and Indian Ocean to the east, and Kenya to the southwest. It is separated from Socotra by the Guardafui Channel in the northeast. Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa's mainland, and its terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains and highlands. Climatically, hot conditions prevail year-round, with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall.In terms of culture, religion, ethnicity and linguistics, it has been described as the "only" and the "most" homogeneous country in Africa. Somalia has an estimated population of around 14.3 million. Around 85% of its residents are ethnic Somalis, who have historically inhabited the northern part of the country. Ethnic minorities are largely concentrated in the southern regions. The official languages of Somalia are Somali and Arabic, both of which belong to the Afroasiatic family. Most people in the country are Muslim, with the majority being Sunni.In antiquity, Somalia was an important commercial centre. It is among the most probable locations of the fabled ancient Land of Punt. During the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade, including the Ajuran Empire, the Adal Sultanate, the Warsangali Sultanate, and the Sultanate of the Geledi.In the late 19th century, through a succession of treaties with these kingdoms, the British and Italian empires gained control of parts of the coast and established the colonies of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland. In the interior, Mohammed Abdullah Hassan's movement repelled the British Empire four times and forced it to retreat to the coastal region, before succumbing to defeat in 1920 by British airpower. The toponym Somalia was coined by the Italian explorer Luigi Robecchi Bricchetti (1855–1926). Italy acquired full control of the northeastern, central and southern parts of the area after successfully waging the so-called Campaign of the Sultanates against the ruling Majeerteen Sultanate and Sultanate of Hobyo. Italian occupation lasted until 1941, yielding to British military administration. British Somaliland would remain a protectorate, while Italian Somaliland in 1949 became a United Nations Trusteeship under Italian administration, the Trust Territory of Somaliland. In 1960, the two regions united to form the independent Somali Republic under a civilian government.The Supreme Revolutionary Council seized power in 1969 and established the Somali Democratic Republic. Led by Mohamed Siad Barre, this government later collapsed in 1991 as the Somali Civil War broke out. Various armed factions began competing for influence in the power vacuum, particularly in the south. During this period, due to the absence of a central government, Somalia was a "failed state", and residents returned to customary and religious law in most regions. A few autonomous regions, including the Somaliland and Puntland administrations, emerged in the north. The early 2000s saw the creation of fledgling interim federal administrations. The Transitional National Government (TNG) was established in 2000, followed by the formation of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) in 2004, which reestablished national institutions such as the military. In 2006, the TFG, assisted by Ethiopian troops, assumed control of most of the nation's southern conflict zones from the newly formed Islamic Courts Union (ICU). The ICU subsequently splintered into more radical groups such as Al-Shabaab, which battled the TFG and its AMISOM allies for control of the region.By mid-2012, the insurgents had lost most of the territory that they had seized. In 2011–2012, a political process providing benchmarks for the establishment of permanent democratic institutions was launched. Within this administrative framework a new provisional constitution was passed in August 2012, which reformed Somalia as a federation. Following the end of the TFG's interim mandate the same month, the Federal Government of Somalia, the first permanent central government in the country since the start of the civil war, was formed and a period of reconstruction began in Mogadishu. Somalia has maintained an informal economy, mainly based on livestock, remittances from Somalis working abroad, and telecommunications.Somalia is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, African Union, Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.