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Peru NEWS

NFE/5.0en-USnews-webmaster@google.com2019 Google Inc.Thu, 17 Jan 2019 02:47:00 GMTGoogle News
Blind Detroiter missing in Peru  The Detroit News

Family says Carla Valpeoz failed to show up for return flight and hasn't been seen in nearly a week.

The Detroit News
The U.S. Should Get Tough on Timber With Peru  The New York Times

When the trade deal between the United States and Peru went into effect in 2009, proponents touted it as a shining example of environmental good sense.

The New York Times
Peru lawmakers probe Odebrecht link to former firm of president  Reuters UK

A Peruvian congressional committee on Wednesday launched a probe into a defunct consortium led by scandal-plagued Brazilian builder Odebrecht, after local ...

Reuters UK
UNICEF Is Helping Venezuelan Children Start Over In Peru  Forbes

Newly arrived Venezuelan children are welcome at Child-Friendly Spaces set up by UNICEF and implementing partner Plan International, like this one in ...

Forbes
Benefits for Peru, Haiti and, um, Penngrove  Petaluma Argus Courier

Helping Out: Benefits for Peru, Haiti and Penngrove.

Petaluma Argus Courier
Better be punctual if you want to tour Peru's Machu Picchu  TimesLIVE

In an effort to manage growing visitor numbers, Machu Picchu has tightened entry rules, restricting access to hourly intervals.

TimesLIVE
Peru city floods after sewage line breaks  AccuWeather.com

Parts of Lima, Peru, were under water on Jan. 14, after a sewage line broke, flooding parts of the city with several feet of water.

AccuWeather.com
Dakar rally race pushes drivers to the edge in Peru  New York Post

Peugeot's British driver Harry Hunt and Dutch co-driver Wouter Rosegarr drive toward fans during Stage 1 of the Dakar 2019 between Lima and Pisco, Peru, on ...

New York Post
Local 5K to benefit at risk teens in Peru  Vail Daily News

Snowshoe enthusiasts of all ages and fitness levels are invited to participate in a 5K event on Saturday, Feb. 3, at Sylvan Lake State Park. The 6th Annual ...

Vail Daily News
Spanish telecoms company gets refinancing in Peru  Latin Lawyer

Peruvian firm Rebaza, Alcázar & De Las Casas has helped Spanish telecoms company Ezentis Group obtain refinancing worth 92 million euros (US$105 ...

Latin Lawyer
Peru water main break under repair | News  Plattsburgh Press Republican

PERU — The intersection at routes 22 and 22B in the Town of Peru will be shut down periodically today. The town is repairing a water main rupture that ...

Plattsburgh Press Republican
South32 to spend $9M on Inca's Peru project  www.miningnews.net

While negotiations for South32's entry are yet to be finalised, the major miner expected to spend between $8-10 million for its first phase to earn a 60% stake, ...

www.miningnews.net
Unbearable stench: Giant sewage spill befouls Peru's capital  KOMO News

LIMA, Peru (AP) — Amid an unbearable stench, thousands of workers, police and soldiers struggled Wednesday to contain and clean up a flood of sewage that ...

KOMO News
A Bohemian Neighborhood in Peru Gets a Luxury Lift  The Wall Street Journal

Lima's Barranco district gets renewed interest from wealthy homeowners drawn to its republican-era buildings, beach-town feel and easy access to restaurants ...

The Wall Street Journal
Peru recalls last diplomat from Venezuela to protest 'illegitimate' new term  Reuters

LIMA (Reuters) - Peru has recalled its charge d'affaires from its embassy in Venezuela to protest what it called the “illegitimate” new term of President Nicolas ...

Reuters
The 28 Most Beautiful Places in Peru  Condé Nast Traveler

Machu Picchu is just the tip of the iceberg (although if you want actual icebergs, Peru has those, too).

Condé Nast Traveler
Worries grow as more Venezuelans look to Peru  IRINnews.org

The number of Venezuelans in Peru is tipped to reach 1.4 million in 2019, even as the government appears to be hardening immigration policy.

IRINnews.org
American woman missing in Peru wanted to see the world before she totally lost her sight  CNN

An American woman who is legally blind and eventually will totally lose her sight is missing in Peru, where she was touring after attending a wedding.

CNN
Peru demolishes mausoleum holding dead Shining Path rebels  The Seattle Times

LIMA, Peru (AP) — Peruvian authorities on Saturday demolished a mausoleum holding eight Shining Path rebels killed during prison massacres more than ...

The Seattle Times
Purchasing Porter: Local Peru couple buys historic birthplace of Broadway legend Cole Porter  Kokomo Tribune

PERU – A Peru couple has purchased the birthplace of famous Broadway composer Cole Porter and will continue to run it as an inn after the property went up ...

Kokomo Tribune
Mislabeling Food in Peru Stirs Overfishing Worries  U.S. News & World Report

The discovery of sharks in the country's national dish fuels debate over the best ways to protect threatened animals.

U.S. News & World Report
Protests in Peru as Team Investigating Odebrecht Corruption Is Dismissed  The New York Times

LIMA, Peru — Peru's attorney general dismissed a team investigating the far-reaching Odebrecht corruption scandal late Monday, setting off street protests in ...

The New York Times
Peru’s attorney general resigns over corruption probe  The Seattle Times

LIMA, Peru (AP) — Peru's attorney general resigned on Tuesday amid accusations that he hindered a corruption probe involving Brazilian construction giant ...

The Seattle Times
Peru State organization hosting fundraiser for former student with ALS  Sand Hills Express

PERU – Former Nebraska City resident Tesla Oldfield was recently diagnosed with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease) and her former ...

Sand Hills Express
In Overture to Democrats, Trump Administration May Challenge Peru on Deforestation  The New York Times

The United States is considering using trade deal provisions to challenge Peru's decision to dismantle an agency created to stop the illegal harvesting of trees in ...

The New York Times
Welcome to Peru  ELLE.com

Imagine the world's most glamorous 4-H fair crossed with Fashion Week, and you'll have a sense of what Peru's Alpaca Fiesta feels like. The event this past ...

ELLE.com
What made Peru's Chimú people sacrifice their own children?  National Geographic

Some 500 years ago, the Chimú in what is now Peru ritually killed hundreds of their young in the largest mass child sacrifice events known in world history.

National Geographic
Dakar rally: Is the new route in Peru the hardest yet?  Aljazeera.com

Organisers warn new route through Peruvian desert could be one of the hardest for competitors, physically and mentally.

Aljazeera.com
A Detroit woman who is legally blind vanished during Peru vacation  NBC News

A Detroit woman who is legally blind vanished in Peru nearly a week ago after traveling alone to the remote Inca sanctuary of Machu Picchu, sparking a frantic ...

NBC News
Three Spanish climbers, guide, perish on icy mountain in Peru  News24

Three Spanish mountaineers died with their Peruvian guide while climbing a snow-capped peak in the Andes, Peruvian authorities reported on Monday.

News24
Peru enforces tough measures for Venezuela migrants  Aljazeera.com

Peru says that, after December, it will not offer work permits to the 2000 Venezuelan migrants that are crossing the border daily, but will keep the border open.

Aljazeera.com
Alum Records Glacier Sounds in Peru  State of the Planet

By Runyu Liang for GlacierHub. It's hard enough to capture an image of a glacier, but what about the sounds that glaciers make? GlacierHub caught up with ...

State of the Planet
Peru jumps to No.2 avocado exporter to the US  Produce Blue Book

Soaring in popularity are Peruvian avocados, which were first imported to the United States during the summer months back in 2012. Xavier Equihua, president ...

Produce Blue Book
Climate Change Has Shrunk Pastures In The Andes Of Peru. Could Ancient Waterways Offer A Fix? : Goats and Soda  NPR

Climate change has shrunk the wetlands in the Andes where livestock graze. Could reviving ancient water systems bring back the grass?

NPR
Street dancing as survival? Ask these young Venezuelan migrants in Peru  NBCNews.com

A group of break dancers even impressed Angelina Jolie when she visited Lima, Peru. But these street dancers are Venezuelan migrants trying to survive after ...

NBCNews.com
Peru attorney general reverses decision on Odebrecht probe  FRANCE 24 English

Peru Attorney General Pedro Chavarry on Wednesday reappointed two lead prosecutors he had dismissed from a high-profile graft probe after the decision ...

FRANCE 24 English
Why exploring Peru’s Inca Empire and the Amazon is the perfect 10-day honeymoon  Evening Standard

We've all been told about the white beaches of the Maldives, the Michelin-starred joints in New York and the Big Five in the African plains but what about taking ...

Evening Standard
Murrysville woman studies indigenous groups in Peru  Tribune-Review

Despite taking eight years of Spanish classes, Victoria Nied quickly found herself marooned on a linguistic island when she arrived at her host family's home in ...

Tribune-Review
Friday Fare Deals: Boston, Sydney, Peru, SoCal, Hawaii, Vegas, and more  SF Gate

The flight deal gurus at Thrifty Traveler have teamed up with SFGate to provide a weekly roundup of the best domestic and international flight deals from the San ...

SF Gate
Family continues search for San Antonio native that's been missing in Peru for 3 weeks  mySA

More than three weeks after San Antonio native 35-year-old Carla Valpeoz disappeared in Peru, her family is not giving up hope. They've raised $25,000 for ...

mySA
Venezuela rejects OAS resolution, asks Peru to better protect embassy  UPI News

Jan. 11 (UPI) -- Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro's government on Friday criticized a resolution from the Organization of American States calling for new ...

UPI News
Top US trade official voices concern over Peru logging  Washington Post

LIMA, Peru — The top U.S. trade official contends Peru's government is not living up to its commitment to combat illegal logging in a case that could have ...

Washington Post
Venezuelan migrants hit Peru's street, dancing to survive  Fox News

The three Venezuelan migrants eke out a living 90 seconds at a time in a busy intersection of Peru's capital.

Fox News
Top US trade official takes aim at Peru in logging dispute  Washington Post

The top U.S. trade official has taken the first step toward potential sanctions on Peru for allegedly violating the environmental protections included in its free trade ...

Washington Post
Legally blind American woman missing in Peru last seen on hiking trail  CNN

An American tourist who is legally blind and eventually will totally lose her sight was last seen more than a week ago on a trail near a small village in Peru, her ...

CNN
In Peru, novel program paves the way for autistic people's employment  Spectrum

At a center in Lima, Peru, people with autism learn to identify their strengths and find jobs that play to those strengths.

Spectrum
Peru’s Challenge to Build Tourism Outside the Shadows of Machu Picchu  Skift

When you think of Peru, you probably think of the same thing that I do — Machu Picchu. I try to always “live like a local” when I travel, but this is one.

Skift
Peru chefs turning scraps into meals  Aljazeera.com

Palmiro Ocampo has cooked for some of the top restaurants in the world, but now, he is teaching cooks in Peru to make cheaper and healthier meals by wasting ...

Aljazeera.com
Peru shows it has more than asparagus  Produce Blue Book

Here's a fun fact: Peru is the third-largest exporter of blueberries in the world, with more than 10,000 acres dedicated to growing the superfruit. In 2017, Peru ...

Produce Blue Book
Canopy Growth Extends Latin American Operations with Spectrum...  New Cannabis Ventures

Canopy LATAM starting the year strong – opening new markets, supporting education, and achieving newly licensed production capacity. LIMA, Peru and ...

New Cannabis Ventures
Vigil held for Detroit woman last seen in Peru  WXYZ

DETROIT — On Sunday, friends and family of Carla Valpeoz, a woman last seen in Peru, gathered on Belle Isle for a vigil to pray for her safe return.

WXYZ
'Red alert' search for Michigan woman missing in Peru widens: Police  ABC News

The desperate search for a visually impaired Michigan woman missing in Peru has shifted into "red alert" status with police fanning out across the country, ...

ABC News
Peru & AuSable Play 2  WPTZ

Peru and AuSable Valley basketball played two games on Thursday night. The boy's teams were at the AuSable Valley gym, where the home team Patriots ...

WPTZ
Search continues for Metro Detroit woman last seen in Peru  WDIV ClickOnDetroit

Family members have started a GoFundMe page to raise money for search and rescue efforts to locate a Metro Detroit woman who was last seen in Peru.

WDIV ClickOnDetroit
Fraying grass roof tops Mil Centro restaurant in Peru's Sacred Valley  Dezeen

Peruvian restaurant Mil Centro, overlooking an archaeological site, was designed by Lima-based Estudio Rafael Freyre as a laboratory for local gastronomy.

Dezeen
Illegal logging in Peru  The Ecologist

Stand at a certain point along the dusty highway on the northern outskirts of Puerto Maldonado, a town in the Peruvian Amazon, and you'll see trucks ...

The Ecologist
Democrats look to Peru deal for answers to USMCA labor woes  Politico

GAO to investigate tariff exclusions — U.S. plays the blame game at the WTO.

Politico
Hike a Forgotten Incan Refuge in Peru  Backpacker

Trek deep into the heart of the Peruvian mountains to find an ancient city, Choquequirao, on this trip from BACKPACKER.

Backpacker
Peru winery opening delayed by government shutdown | News  Kokomo Tribune

PERU – Jason McKeever had planned to open his tap room and winery in Peru by the end of the month, serving up craft beers and spirits. But now, the.

Kokomo Tribune
San Jose Earthquakes sign Peru international left back Marcos Lopez  MLSsoccer.com

TRANSFER TRACKER STATUS: Signing. The San Jose Earthquakes announced the signing of Peruvian defender Marcos Lopez on Sunday, striking a ...

MLSsoccer.com
Archaeologists Find Remains of 132 Children in Peru's Ancient Chimu Civilization  Al-Bawaba

Archaeologists exploring an area of north Peru formerly inhabited by the Chimu civilization have found the remains of 132 children, evidence of one of the ...

Al-Bawaba
Peru council approves downtown TIF district | Free  LaSalle News Tribune

A Peru downtown Tax Increment Financing district became a reality Monday night.

LaSalle News Tribune
$1M Gift Launches UA Locations in Peru and Mauritius  UANews

The Thomas R. Brown Foundations has donated $1 million to the University of Arizona to establish micro-campuses at leading universities in Peru and Mauritius ...

UANews
Bring it on home: Peru  STLtoday.com

Who and where • Ed and Mary Migneco of St. Louis in Machu Picchu, Peru.

STLtoday.com
Finally, home ice in Peru | Free  LaSalle News Tribune

Peru got another brand new pad, and it soon will become home ice for skaters and possibly hockey teams. At no cost to the city of Peru, a new ice rink was set ...

LaSalle News Tribune
Oil furnace cause of Peru auto business blaze: officials  week.com

PERU, Ill. (WEEK) — A fire which destroyed a long-running Peru auto business began in the oil furnace, officials said at a Wednesday press conference.

week.com
Peru Kmart set to close in March | News  Kokomo Tribune

PERU – The Peru Kmart, which provided one of the largest shopping options in the city, is set to permanently close in late March.

Kokomo Tribune
Brazil’s snow to Peru’s monsoon: Kerala tea shop couple’s globetrot hits 23 countries  The News Minute

Tell me if you want me to pawn your title deed and bring you the money so you could travel too. Vijayan has found a simple solution for me to travel, just like him ...

The News Minute
An American woman who is slowly losing her eyesight has gone missing in Peru. Her family is trying to get the Red Cross to help.  INSIDER

An American woman with a medical condition that will destroy her eyesight has gone missing during a trip to Peru. Carla Valpeoz, a 35-year-old museum ...

INSIDER
Peru community conflicts wane in December  Business News Americas

Peru's ombudsman office, Defensoría del Pueblo, said ongoing social conflicts fell to an 11-month low as the country went to a .

Business News Americas
Peru board upholds objection to Buffo's nomination papers  LaSalle News Tribune

Aaron Buffo's name will not appear on the ballot for the 4th Ward alderman race in the April 2 election. On Thursday, the three members of the Peru Electoral ...

LaSalle News Tribune
See Peru's Pastoruri Glacier Melting via Drone-Mounted LEDs  WIRED

Photographer Reuben Wu devised a creative way to shoot Peru's Pastoruri glacier at night.

WIRED
HRC Partners with Presente to Promote Workplace Inclusion in Peru  Human Rights Campaign

Today, HRC announced a partnership with Presente -- Peru's largest LGBT advocacy group -- to promote LGBT inclusion across workplaces in Peru.

Human Rights Campaign
Peru discusses importing natural gas through pipeline from Bolivia  Reuters

LIMA (Reuters) - Energy ministers from Peru and Bolivia agreed on Thursday to discuss building a pipeline that would transport natural gas and liquefied natural ...

Reuters
Seminole dentist leads medical mission trips to Peru  Tampa Bay Times

SEMINOLE — When Dr. Sandra Lilo first learned about a team of San Francisco-based Rotarians traveling to Central America on cleft palate medical mission ...

Tampa Bay Times
Family seeks help to find blind Detroiter missing in Peru  The Detroit News

Three weeks after Carla Valpeoz disappeared, her brother is frustrated: "No one has the slightest clue of what happened to her"

The Detroit News
A different kind of chocolate: Peru native uses cocoa beans from all over the world to craft unique flavors  Kokomo Tribune

PERU – Patrick Redmon made a pact with himself years ago that he would follow his excitement wherever it might take him.

Kokomo Tribune
Bald eagle watching event set at reservoir near Peru  CBS 4 Indianapolis

PERU, Ind. — State wildlife officials are planning a bald eagle watching event at a northern Indiana reservoir that's a gathering spot for large numbers of the ...

CBS 4 Indianapolis
Behind Omaha South grad Lyle Hexom, Peru State basketball off to fast start  Omaha World-Herald

Lyle Hexom is making the most of his final collegiate season. And thanks to the Omaha South product's all-around play, the Peru State men's basketball team is ...

Omaha World-Herald
PHOTOS: Fire trucks flock to raging blaze in Peru (VIDEO)  LaSalle News Tribune

Multiple fire departments were dispatched to a multi-alarm structure fire at 701 Putnam Street in Peru Monday morning.

LaSalle News Tribune
Dakar 2019 Stage 1: Santosh Dazzles On Day One In Peru  Zigwheels.com

It has finally begun and what a brilliant performance by CS Santosh on the opening day of the Dakar 2019. The Fast Indian was literally flying through the 84km ...

Zigwheels.com
Peru man charged with murder in deaths of South Paris couple  WGME

SOUTH PARIS (WGME) – A man has been charged with murder for the deaths of two people found this week in a South Paris apartment. The bodies of Heather ...

WGME
Police install ‘water and cookie stations’ for abandoned hungry animals in Peru  NTD

Police stations in Peru have come up with an excellent idea to install food dispensers for stray and abandoned animals in an attempt to keep a check on animal ...

NTD
Parolee leads police on car, foot chase in Peru  LaSalle News Tribune

Peru officers arrested a suspect on several charges after he fled from a traffic stop, first by car and then on foot.

LaSalle News Tribune
WIKIFLEET Peru, Bolivia, Uruguay, now online  Global Fleet

Global Fleet has kicked off 2019 with the announcement of three Wikifleet country profiles. Ranked by population, they are Peru with approximately 31mn ...

Global Fleet
International symposium in Peru: Spineway presents Mont Blanc and Kili product lines  Spinal News International

Spineway, in collaboration with its Peruvian distributor, presented its operating techniques to some one hundred local surgeons during a recent symposium in ...

Spinal News International
Peru's Fire Chief speaks out following the fire that destroyed the Witczak Brothers Auto Repair shop  CIproud.com

The Peru Fire department held a press conference following the New Year's Eve fire that destroyed an auto repair business.

CIproud.com
Sabancaya volcano (Peru) activity update: continuing ash explosions at rates about one per hour  VolcanoDiscovery

The activity of the volcano has not changed significantly over the past months. During the past week, there have been an average of 23 explosions per day from ...

VolcanoDiscovery
Bartley recuses himself from Peru electoral board | Free  LaSalle News Tribune

An electoral board hearing was postponed after a board member recused himself at Wednesday's hearing for Peru alderman Dave Potthoff's objection to Aaron ...

LaSalle News Tribune
Exclusive: Mundaka Comes to Northern Peru  Surfline.com Surf News

Cabo Blanco has long been known as one of Peru's best — and most fickle — waves. Needs the sand to be right, and unlike the famed points in the south, ...

Surfline.com Surf News
Peru woman named to fill seat in Legislature  Lincoln Journal Star

Gov. Pete Ricketts on Wednesday appointed 22-year-old Julie Slama of Peru to a seat in the Legislature representing southeast Nebraska's 1st District.

Lincoln Journal Star
Peru bars entry to Maduro, Venezuela government  Yahoo News

Lima (AFP) - Peru announced Monday it was barring entry to Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro and his cabinet, increasing pressure on the socialist leader ...

Yahoo News
How to Experience Peru's Sacred Valley of the Incas  Fodor's Travel

Experience Peru's Sacred Valley with Perillo's Learning Journeys. You've flown into Cusco because you are, inevitably, en route to Machu Picchu. Visions of an ...

Fodor's Travel
A Video Tour of Mancora, Peru  International Living

Head to Mancora and the surrounding area and you are in for a treat. Located 600 miles north of Lima, this unique part of Peru is dry, sunny...

International Living
Cocaine blamed for rising deforestation in Peru's Bahuaja-Sonene National Park  Mongabay.com

The burned forest and coca crops that have dominated the landscape along the road for the past two hours are gradually being transformed into coffee ...

Mongabay.com
Bitcoin [BTC] trading volume increases exponentially in Colombia, Venezuela and Peru  AMBCrypto News

Venezuela has shown a massive increase in Bitcoin adoption over the last year when compared to the data from the past. The data also shows that the trading ...

AMBCrypto News
Police: Carmel man considered sexual predator arrested at Peru gas station  Kokomo Tribune

PERU – Police arrested a 31-year-old Carmel man who was wanted on five counts of failure to register as a sex offender.

Kokomo Tribune
Peru to play Paraguay in House of Kaku  Once A Metro

Kaku may get a chance to light up Red Bull Arena for a team other than RBNY in 2019.

Once A Metro
Making a list ... Peru police shop for 18 children  LaSalle News Tribune

Peru police Commander Sarah Raymond and community *service* officer Blake Frund spent Thursday afternoon walking the aisles of Walmart looking for Peppa ...

LaSalle News Tribune
Slight tax increase for Peru elementary | Free  LaSalle News Tribune

The property tax rate for Peru elementary school district is increasing by 3 cents.

LaSalle News Tribune
 

Peru Videos

Welcome to Peru! | Best Essential Tips & Travel Guide
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Welcome to Peru! | Best Essential Tips & Travel Guide
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BQL - Peru (Official Video)
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Almuerzo Peruano VIRAL Chihuan con Dan Jackson - Jose angel en Peru
RALLY DAKAR 2019 | Rest Day Full Summary Peru #Dakar2019
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RALLY DAKAR 2019 | Rest Day Full Summary Peru #Dakar2019
25 cosas que me sorprendieron en PERU, segun un argentino
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25 cosas que me sorprendieron en PERU, segun un argentino
Visit Peru - The Don'ts of Visiting Peru
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Visit Peru - The Don'ts of Visiting Peru
The Original People of Peru: The Quechua (Indigenous People Documentary) | TRACKS
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The Original People of Peru: The Quechua (Indigenous People Documentary) | TRACKS
Builders of Ancient Peru Found 800 Foot Deep In Cave?
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Builders of Ancient Peru Found 800 Foot Deep In Cave?
¿QUE PASA EN PERU CON LOS VENEZOLANOS?
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¿QUE PASA EN PERU CON LOS VENEZOLANOS?
Nicolás Maduro AMENAZA a Perú!
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Nicolás Maduro AMENAZA a Perú!
 

Peru Images

Alpamayo - Wikipedia
Alpamayo - Wikipedia
Recent Peru Women Tour Photos
Recent Peru Women Tour Photos
Aztec and maya ancient animal symbols Royalty Free Vector
Aztec and maya ancient animal symbols Royalty Free Vector
File:Fivel Stewart.jpg - Wikimedia Commons
File:Fivel Stewart.jpg - Wikimedia Commons
File:HUACATAY 001.jpg - Wikipedia
File:HUACATAY 001.jpg - Wikipedia
Paracas Candelabra of Peru | Amusing Planet
Paracas Candelabra of Peru | Amusing Planet
Foto de Huancayo, Perú
Foto de Huancayo, Perú
República do Peru
República do Peru
페루
페루
Sicu - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
Sicu - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
 

Peru WebSites

 

Peru Wiki

Peru ( (listen); Spanish: Perú [peˈɾu]; Quechua: Piruw Republika [pʰɪɾʊw]; Aymara: Piruw Suyu [pɪɾʊw]), officially the Republic of Peru (Spanish: República del Perú ), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a biodiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures, ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima. Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, and following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, and the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru secured independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, coups, social unrest, and internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990; his government was credited with economically stabilizing Peru and successfully ending the Shining Path insurgency, though he was widely accused of human rights violations and suppression of political dissent. Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2017. Even after the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power, even causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018. The sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is classified as an emerging market with a high level of human development and an upper middle income level with a poverty rate around 19 percent. It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing; along with other growing sectors such as telecommunications and biotechnology. The country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom and it has the third lowest homicide rate in South America; it is an active member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Alliance, the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the World Trade Organization; and is considered as a middle power.Peru has a multiethnic population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua, Aymara or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.