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NFE/5.0en-USnews-webmaster@google.com2019 Google Inc.Tue, 15 Jan 2019 08:40:22 GMTGoogle News
Salif Coulibaly: Mali international leaves Egypt's Al Ahly for Iraq  BBC Sport

Egyptian giants Al Ahly announce the departure of their Mali international defender Salif Coulibaly after only six months at the club.

BBC Sport
Risk is real as Irish special forces to deploy to Mali  RTE.ie

Deputy Foreign Editor Colm Ó Mongáin reports from Mali where Ireland is set to deploy its next peacekeeping detachment.

Mali slaves campaign to end West Africa servitude tradition  Washington Times

It seems inconceivable in the 21st century, but hundreds of thousands of people in Mali are slaves.

Washington Times
Panthera granted new exploration licence in Mali  Creamer Media's Mining Weekly

Gold exploration and development company Panthera Resources, which owns assets in India and West Africa, has been granted a new exploration licence, ...

Creamer Media's Mining Weekly
Cervical cancer and the story-telling cloth in Mali | OUPblog  OUPblog

Around the world, the arts are being used within communities to address local needs. For such projects to be most effective, program participants must: ensure ...

Help release Mali from Manila Zoo  INQUIRER.net

More than 35 years ago in a lush forest in Sri Lanka, Mali, a barely weaned baby elephant, was stolen from its mother. She was transported to a zoo in Manila ...

Canadian Troops Pose With Chinook As It Sticks A Pinnacle Landing While On Deployment In Mali  The Drive

One of the most impressive capabilities of the CH-47 Chinook series is the helicopter's ability to balance its two rear wheels on the edge of a cliff or some other ...

The Drive
In Photos: Operation PRESENCE-Mali : Pacific Navy News  Victoria Lookout

Chief of the Defence Staff, General Jonathan Vance, awards the MINUSMA and Canadian Peace Keeping Medals to members of Operation PRESENCE-Mali at ...

Victoria Lookout
Mali FM Kamissa Camara on rebels, human rights and Sahel security  Aljazeera.com

The peace treaty signed by government leaders and separatist rebels in Mali in 2015 was meant to usher in a new era of peace and stability in the northwest ...

Trudeau government's lack of interest in Mali — and peacekeeping — shows as mission nears halfway mark, critics say  National Post

OTTAWA — Nearly halfway through Canada's 12-month mission in Mali, questions and disappointment are emerging over what some experts see as the ...

National Post
Taoiseach begins week-long visit to Mali and Ethiopia  RTE.ie

Taoiseach Leo Varadkar is to begin a week-long programme in Africa today, during which he will visit Irish troops in Mali and later meet Irish NGOs operating in ...

Mali to send reinforcements to Timbuktu  EWN

Another 350 police officers, paramilitary gendarmes and soldiers will be deployed, Prime Minister Soumeylou Boubeye Maiga told reporters in Bamako Saturday ...

Mali attack: 37 civilians killed in armed raid on village  The Guardian

Children among victims in area hit by ethnic violence in which hundreds died last year.

The Guardian
Irish forces offer guidance in efforts for peace in Mali  The Irish Times

Defence Forces in Koulikoro helping locals deal with climate change and rising population.

The Irish Times
Sheikh Mohamed meets president of Mali  The National

Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed met with Ibrahim Keita in Abu Dhabi on Saturday before witnessing the signing of a $25 million (Dh91.8m) agreement with the ...

The National
Govt considering proposal to send army rangers to Mali  RTE.ie

A proposal to send the Army Ranger Wing (ARW) to Mali on peacekeeping duties is being actively considered by the Government, RTÉ News has learned.

PM: Anti-Jihadist Forces to be 'Strengthened' in Mali  VOA News

The Malian prime minister on Sunday announced a boost to anti-jihadist operations alongside a program to disarm and reintegrate militias in the centre of the ...

VOA News
Six killed by landmine in central Mali: local officials  News24

Six civilians, including four women, have been killed in central Mali after the vehicle they were in drove over a landmine, local officials say.

Trudeau insists Canadian presence in Mali making a difference  CBC.ca

Canada's presence in Mali is helping the war-torn country get back on its feet at a faster pace, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau insisted during a highly secret, ...

FROM THE FIELD: 'Hope' on the horizon as UN Peacekeepers push deep into Mali  UN News

UN peacekeepers in Mali have given what villagers in a remote part of the West African country have called a “real glimmer of hope.” Senegalese troops from ...

UN News
Deadly Mali attack to be investigated by UN rights experts  UN News

An attack on a village in central Mali earlier this week in which at least 37 civilians died, is to be investigated with the help of United Nations human rights experts ...

UN News
Hamari Traore: ‘Mali must do better in 2019’  BBC Sport

Mali defender Hamari Traore says his country must perform better at the 2019 Africa Cup of Nations than in their last two Nations Cup appearances.

BBC Sport
How a spoof story about Malian soldiers deserting in Canada became 'fake news'  FRANCE 24

Follow international news through our Observers' amateur images and eyewitness testimony. All the *content* is verified and explained by our journalists.

Mali: Militias Kill Over 75 Civilians  Human Rights Watch

Ethnic militias in Mali killed at least 75 civilians during a one-week period in early December 2018, Human Rights Watch said today. Malian authorities began ...

Human Rights Watch
Qatar sends 24 armored vehicles to Mali  Reuters

DUBAI (Reuters) - Qatar has airlifted 24 armored vehicles to Mali, in a move it said would help the countries of the African Sahel region combat terrorism.

Government's disinterest peacekeeping is showing as Mali mission nears midpoint, critics say  Montreal Gazette

'The Canadian contribution to (the UN mission in Mali) will be forgotten quickly,' says one expert on Mali. 'It's a quick in-and-out that ... changes nothing'

Montreal Gazette
Six Suspected Jihadists Killed in French Airstrike in Mali, Says Military  VOA News

At least six suspected members of a jihadist group were killed overnight in a French airstrike in southeastern Mali, a French military spokesman said Thursday.

VOA News
Trudeau makes a surprise visit to peacekeepers in Mali  The Globe and Mail

Justin Trudeau defended his government's refusal to extend Canada's mission in Mali, as the prime minister visited peacekeepers in the north of the country on ...

The Globe and Mail
Canadian troops in Mali provide life-saving medical support  Toronto Star

Working on the front lines of the United Nations deadliest mission, Canadian troops in Mali provide medical evacuation to troops and civilians.

Toronto Star
UAE, Mali sign US$25 million deal on economic cooperation  Ghana News Agency

ABU DHABI, Jan. 14 (Xinhua/GNA) - Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi Mohammed bin Zayed Al-Nahyan and Malian President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita on Saturday ...

Ghana News Agency
EASO publishes a Country of Origin Information (COI) report on Mali  EU News

Today, the European Asylum Support Office (EASO) published a Country of Origin Information (COI) Country Focus Report on Mali. The report provides an ...

EU News
In warming Mali, weather forecasts help cool flaring tempers  Reuters

PARANA, Mali (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Baba Coulibaly, a farmer in Mali, knows just how bitter disputes over food and fodder can become in a time of ...

From Mali to World Juniors: What’s keeping Canadians from home at Christmas  Global News

The holiday season is often full of cheer, but it can also be a difficult time of the year if you aren't able to spend it with your loved ones.

Global News
Grand Islander makes ripples in film industry, brings Mali music to light  KFXL Fox Nebraska

A Grand Islander who's been living in Mali for fifteen years makes his way back into town, spreading awareness about West African culture through music.

KFXL Fox Nebraska
Trudeau makes surprise visit to peacekeepers in Mali, defends decision not to extend mission  Toronto Star

GAO, MALI—Prime Minister Justin Trudeau praised the work of hundreds of peacekeepers during a surprise visit here on Saturday even as he defended his ...

Toronto Star
Mali: From Mali - a Lesson in Tolerance  AllAfrica - Top Africa News

Opinion - We all adhere to generalizations. For example, while reading and speaking about Muslims and Christians, sweeping opinions might easily become ...

AllAfrica - Top Africa News
Trudeau visits Canadian troops on peacekeeping mission in Mali | Watch News Videos Online  Globalnews.ca

Mercedes Stephenson is in Mali where Prime Minister Justin Trudeau paid a surprise visit to Canadian troops for the Holidays. Justin Trudeau greets troops in ...

Justin Trudeau visits Canadian troops in Mali | Watch News Videos Online  Globalnews.ca

Watch Justin Trudeau visits Canadian troops in Mali Video Online, on GlobalNews.ca.

Amadou Haidara: Mali international ‘motivated’ after move to RB Leipzig  BBC Sport

Mali midfielder Amadou Haidara says he feels 'motivated' to succeed with German Bundesliga club RB Leipzig following his move from Austrian side RB ...

BBC Sport
Mali is coming to Civilization 6 and will have more money than you  PCGamesN

Mali is led by Mansa Musa, the richest man in history, and they have so many gold bonuses Jeff Bezos think it's a bit much.

ESTPLA-26 returns from Mali mission | News  ERR News

Following a four-month tour in Mali, members of the Estonian Defence Forces' (EDF) infantry unit ESTPLA-26 and its support element returned to Estonia on ...

ERR News
Mali heads to Civilization VI with Gathering Storm as a new desert-based empire  Neowin

Following a break for the holidays, Firaxis Games is back to unveiling new civilizations that are being introduced with Civilization VI's upcoming Gathering Storm ...

Bangladesh Air Force to replace contingent in Mali  Dhaka Tribune

Chief of the air staff advised them to discharge their duties with honesty, professionalism and sincerity and bring good reputation for Bangladesh.

Dhaka Tribune
Mali: From the Field - 'Hope' On the Horizon As UN Peacekeepers Push Deep Into Mali  AllAfrica.com

UN peacekeepers in Mali have given what villagers in a remote part of the West African country have called a "real glimmer of hope."

Soldiers in Mali grateful for Buckhorn care packages  ThePeterboroughExaminer.com

In August, September, October, November and December the Yellow Ribbon Campaign sent boxes to troops in Mali. This team led by Darlene Loucks is not ...

Mali: In Warming Mali, Weather Forecasts Help Cool Flaring Tempers  AllAfrica - Top Africa News

Baba Coulibaly, a farmer in Mali, knows just how bitter disputes over food and fodder can become in a time of worsening drought.

AllAfrica - Top Africa News
Telecoms, Mobile and Broadband 2019 Mali Market Survey Industry Key Players – Planor Afrique, Afribone, CEFIB, Datatech  Honest Version

WiseGuyReports.com “Mali – Telecoms, Mobile and Broadband – Statistics and Analyses” report has been added to its Research Database. Scope of the Report ...

Honest Version
Hom Mali Thai and Sushi brings Thai fare to Old Town  WLS-TV

If you've got Thai and Japanese food on your mind, a recent opening is need-to-know. Called Hom Mali Thai and Sushi, the new arrival is located at 417 W.

Keïta Gets 2nd Term as Mali President With Runoff Victory  The New York Times

BAMAKO, Mali — President Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta of Mali claimed an overwhelming victory on Thursday in a runoff vote after a controversial first round of ...

The New York Times
Africa Minister visits Mali as UK deepens efforts to stabilise the region  GOV.UK

Foreign Office and DFID Minister for Africa Harriett Baldwin visited Mali on 8-9 November 2018. Her visit comes as the UK is increasing its engagement with ...

Suspected jihadists kill dozens in attacks on nomadic Tuareg camps in Mali  CBC.ca

Suspected jihadists on motorcycles have killed at least 42 people during a series of attacks on Tuareg nomadic camps in Mali, local leaders said Thursday.

Mali: Senior member of JNIM Amadou Koufa killed in French raid  Al Jazeera English

Malian authorities confirm death of Koufa, who was a top deputy in Jama'at Nusrat al-Islam wal-Muslimin.

Al Jazeera English
3 civilians killed in attack on UN contractor in Mali  News24

At least three Malian civilians were killed and four foreigners working for a UN-contracted mine-clearing operation wounded in a suicide attack on Monday in the ...

12 killed in fresh Mali violence  News24

At least 11 people were shot dead in restive central Mali by unidentified gunmen, while a blast killed one person and injured two, sources say.

The sand diggers of Mali – in pictures | World news  The Guardian

A building boom in the capital, Bamako, has sparked a surge in demand for bricks made from high-quality sand dug by hand from the bed of the Niger River.

The Guardian
Mali: Sunday's election runoff goes ahead despite fraud claims  The Guardian

Ibrahim Boubacar Keita faces Soumaila Cissé after first round marred by ballot stuffing accusations and security concerns.

The Guardian
Mali votes in runoff election amid heavy security presence  The Guardian

Millions of Malians are voting in an unprecedented runoff presidential election that has been overshadowed by widespread allegations of fraud and the threat of ...

The Guardian
Mali name six foreign-based players for Women's Afcon finals  BBC Sport

Mali coach Mohammed Saloum Houssein has named six foreign-based players in his squad for the Women's Africa Cup of Nations finals in Ghana.

BBC Sport
Two UN peacekeepers killed in Mali attacks  Al Jazeera English

Several others were wounded in two attacks in central and northern Mali, according to the UN.

Al Jazeera English
Cameroon beat Mali 4-2 to clinch place at Women's World Cup  BBC Sport

Cameroon beat Mali 4-2 in the Women's Africa Cup of Nations third place play-off match in Cape Coast to seal a spot at next year's Women's World Cup.

BBC Sport
Navy Completes Inquiry Into Strangling Death of Army Green Beret in Mali  The New York Times

WASHINGTON — Navy criminal authorities have completed their investigation into the strangling of an Army Green Beret in June 2017 in Mali, and sent their ...

The New York Times
Mali says foiled New Year's Eve terror attacks  News24

A four-man "terrorist cell" suspected of planning New Year's Eve attacks in Mali, Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso has been dismantled by Malian intelligence ...

Mali name squad for Afcon qualifiers against Burundi  BBC Sport

Mali coach Mohammed Magassouba calls up 18-year old Cheick Oumar Doucouré and France-born striker Alimani Gory ahead of the Nations Cup qualifiers ...

BBC Sport
Gunmen kill dozens of Tuareg civilians in Mali violence  Al Jazeera English

Attackers on motorbikes kill 43 in a village 20km from northern town of Menaka, official says.

Al Jazeera English
Third candidate claims place in Mali election run-off  Reuters

BAMAKO (Reuters) - Three candidates in Mali's presidential election claimed on Tuesday to have made it into a two-candidate run-off vote, adding to confusion ...

New violence eclipses Mali's plans for peace  IRINnews.org

Early warnings of conflict in central Mali went largely unheeded. The message from peacekeepers is clear: “Act now before it is too late”

Spread of Jihadism Turns Central Mali Into Deadliest Region  Bloomberg

A mix of jihadist violence, communal conflict and suspected army abuse have rendered central Mali the country's deadliest region as the influence of Islamist ...

Mali peace deal jeopardised by armed groups linked to terrorism, UN warns  The Guardian

UN security council takes unusual step of identifying signatories that have hampered implementation of 2015 agreement.

The Guardian
Mali set for a critical vote amid security concerns  FRANCE 24 English

Five years after an international military intervention designed to restore peace, Malians will vote Sunday with the vast West African nation still confronting the ...

FRANCE 24 English
Mali has an important election on Sunday. Will it be peaceful?  The Washington Post

On Sunday, the first round of Mali's presidential election will take place. Tensions are high: Political parties have failed to agree on some fundamental issues that ...

The Washington Post
The United Nations is winning the war in Mali  Mail and Guardian

Today Gao is a much different place, thanks to the United Nations and the French military, which intervened at the last minute to save Mali. (Reuters/Emma ...

Mail and Guardian
Mali: Soumaila Cisse rejects results as ballot counting under way  Al Jazeera English

Mali opposition candidate Soumaila Cisse charges fraud in Mali elections marked by low turnout due to security fears.

Al Jazeera English
Mali president Keita wins landslide election; faces uphill struggle  Reuters

Malian President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita won a landslide victory in a run-off against opposition rival Soumaila Cisse, the government said on Thursday, giving ...

Mali is melting down. Here’s why the West should be paying attention.  The Washington Post

Blair Glencorse is executive director of the Accountability Lab. Moussa Kondo is the director of Accountability Lab Mali and an Obama Foundation fellow. Follow ...

The Washington Post
Mali: New law will reinforce the culture of impunity for human rights violations  Amnesty International

Amnesty International is urging the Malian authorities not to vote in a new law which may allow the perpetrators of killings, torture and other atrocities to escape ...

Amnesty International
France to press Mali to implement peace deal with rebels  Reuters

France will press Mali's re-elected President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita on Saturday to move more quickly to bring into force faltering peace accords with rebels as ...

Mali, Algeria, and the uneasy search for peace  European Council on Foreign Relations

This summer, Ibrahim Boubacar Keita was re-elected to Mali's presidency; his plan for peace in the country can stem the conflict, but as the Algerian case shows, ...

European Council on Foreign Relations
Mali is slipping back into chaos  The Globe and Mail

Robert Muggah is the co-founder of the SecDev Group and Igarapé Institute. Mali experienced a rare glimmer of stability this month. Although voter turnout was ...

The Globe and Mail
French forces kill at least 30 extremists in central Mali  News24

France's ministry for the armed forces says its anti-terrorism forces in Mali have killed at least 30 al-Qaeda-linked extremists in central Mali.

Cautious Hope for Mali  U.S. News & World Report

Canada's ambassador to Mali says elections in the West African nation offer an important crossroads for finding peace.

U.S. News & World Report
Khaira Arby, Outspoken Malian Singer With Global Reach, Dies at 58  The New York Times

The “Nightingale of Timbuktu” spoke out against Islamist oppression and sang out again female genital cutting, reaching audiences far beyond Africa.

The New York Times
Mamoudou Gassama: Mali 'Spiderman' becomes French citizen  BBC News

The Malian man who rescued a boy from a balcony in spectacular fashion receives French nationality.

BBC News
Rapid progress is needed in Mali to implement Peace Agreement.  GOV.UK

Statement by Ambassador Jonathan Allen, UK Deputy Permanent Representative to the United Nations, ahead of the Security Council Briefing on Mali.

Mali’s elections saw some Islamist militant violence. Here’s what these patterns suggest.  The Washington Post

On Sept. 4, Mali's president, Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta, was sworn in for a second term. Keïta won 67 percent of the vote in Mali's recent presidential elections, ...

The Washington Post
Mali coach explains absence of Brighton midfielder Yves Bissouma  BBC Sport

Mali coach Mohammed Magassouba says a problem with Yves Bissouma's paperwork led to the Brighton midfielder being left out of the squad for their Africa ...

BBC Sport
Several dozen killed near Mali’s border with Niger  EWN

The attack occurred in an area which has been badly hit by jihadist violence that has claimed several hundred lives this year, most of them civilians of Touareg ...

France says puts 30 jihadists 'out of action' in Mali  Reuters

French forces have "put out of action" some 30 Islamist militants, possibly including veteran Malian jihadist leader Amadou Koufa, during a raid in the central ...

Food, security and peace desperately needed in Mali – UN deputy relief chief  UN News

A senior United Nations relief official has called for greater international attention to the plight of millions in Africa's Mali, where worsening intercommunal ...

UN News
UN reports sharp deterioration in Mali since Canadian peacekeepers arrived  CBC.ca

In a sobering new report, the head of the United Nations says the security situation in Mali has sharply deteriorated over the past three months even as demand ...

Mali President Keita Sworn In to Second 5-Year Term  VOA News

Mali's President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita has been sworn in to a new five-year term in the presence of former rebels and several other personalities although the ...

VOA News
Mali: Floods - Aug 2018  ReliefWeb

Floods in several parts of the country have affected more than 18,800 people, killed three and destroyed more than 3,200 houses. Herders have also lost around ...

FROM THE FIELD: Guinean peacekeepers walk a fine line in Mali  UN News

A team of Guinean peacekeepers deployed to the UN peacekeeping mission in Mali, (MINUSMA) is playing a key role in removing explosives from areas in ...

UN News
UN chief celebrates spirit of hope in Mali, calls for greater international support  UN News

Climate change, poverty, violence… As countless challenges hamper the stability and development of Mali and the Sahel region, a high-level event on ...

UN News
“I have lost everything”: In central Mali, rising extremism stirs inter-communal conflict  IRINnews.org

Jihadists have inflamed long-standing tensions between the Dogon and Fulani communities, sparking waves of tit-for-tat killings by abusive new militias.

Mali's central region faces unprecedented violence: Report  News24

Mali faces unprecedented violence in its central region where extremists, armed groups and the military are committing abuses as fighters linked to al-Qaida and ...

Mali to produce lithium by 2020 with 694,000 T discovered  Reuters

BAMAKO, Nov 19 (Reuters) - Mali is on track to start lithium production by 2020 and companies have already discovered 694,000 tonnes of exploitable reserves, ...

MALI: More than 34,000 persons waiting for humanitarian aid  Norwegian Refugee Council

While the number of people fleeing intercommunal violence, armed groups' activities, and military operations is rising in central and northern Mali, humanitarian ...

Norwegian Refugee Council
At least six dead in Mali after attack on regional anti-terror force base  The Guardian

Islamist militants have attacked the Malian headquarters of a regional anti-terror taskforce, killing six people and leaving many injured, according to a provisional ...

The Guardian
UN mission in Mali tries to bring aid despite al-Qaeda attacks  Aljazeera.com

MINUSMA is intended to keep the peace but is stepping in to fill the gap left by other aid organisations while being increasingly targeted by al-Qaeda.

Cameroon and Mali reach the Women's Afcon semi-finals as hosts Ghana go out  BBC Sport

Cameroon and Mali qualified for the 2018 Women's Africa Cup of Nations semi-finals from Group A on Friday as hosts Ghana were eliminated along with Algeria ...

BBC Sport

Mali Videos

Civilization VI: Gathering Storm - First Look: Mali
Civilization VI: Gathering Storm - First Look: Mali
Geography Now! MALI
Geography Now! MALI
The Empire of Mali - The Twang of a Bow - Extra History - #1
The Empire of Mali - The Twang of a Bow - Extra History - #1
Top Tracks - Mali Music
Top Tracks - Mali Music
Ground Zero: Mali - Insurgents vs. The Malian Army (Part 1)
Ground Zero: Mali - Insurgents vs. The Malian Army (Part 1)
Mika Kostic - Mali (Pink Music Festival 2015)
Mika Kostic - Mali (Pink Music Festival 2015)
Malli | මල්ලි - Fill T
Malli | මල්ලි - Fill T
Mali Analysis and First Impression - Civilization VI: Gathering Storm
Mali Analysis and First Impression - Civilization VI: Gathering Storm
Civilization VI: Gathering Storm - Mali Gameplay Premiere (Dev Livestream)
Civilization VI: Gathering Storm - Mali Gameplay Premiere (Dev Livestream)
Bamako, Mali, city tour and tourist attractions
Bamako, Mali, city tour and tourist attractions

Mali Images

Tomislav Jagnjic - Rock
Tomislav Jagnjic - Rock
Flagge Mali, Fahne Mali, Maliflagge, Malifahne, malische ...
Flagge Mali, Fahne Mali, Maliflagge, Malifahne, malische ...
Master Bedroom T.V Unit with Study Table | 3D Warehouse
Master Bedroom T.V Unit with Study Table | 3D Warehouse
Matthieu Chedid et Fatoumata Diawara: l'écho de Bamako - L ...
Matthieu Chedid et Fatoumata Diawara: l'écho de Bamako - L ...
African Studies Center | Africa: Maps
African Studies Center | Africa: Maps
World Leaders on Instagram 2017 - Twiplomacy
World Leaders on Instagram 2017 - Twiplomacy
Afrique de l'Ouest carte géographique gratuite, carte ...
Afrique de l'Ouest carte géographique gratuite, carte ...
Samsara: Tells The Story Of Our World
Samsara: Tells The Story Of Our World

Mali WebSites


Mali Wiki

Mali ( (listen); French pronunciation: ​[mali]), officially the Republic of Mali (French: République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton. Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi). The population of Mali is 18 million. It borders Mauritania to the West, Senegal, Guinea, Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso to the south, Niger to the east, and Algeria to the north. Its capital is Bamako. The sovereign state of Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara Desert, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Senegal rivers. The country's economy centers on agriculture and mining. Some of Mali's prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, and salt.Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire (for which Mali is named), and the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing of mathematics, astronomy, literature, and art. At its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France and stretched to the west coast of Africa. In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. French Sudan (then known as the Sudanese Republic) joined with Senegal in 1959, achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. Shortly thereafter, following Senegal's withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a coup in 1991 led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state.In January 2012, an armed conflict broke out in northern Mali, in which Tuareg rebels took control of a territory in the north, and in April declared the secession of a new state, Azawad. The conflict was complicated by a military coup that took place in March and later fighting between Tuareg and rebels. In response to territorial gains, the French military launched Opération Serval in January 2013. A month later, Malian and French forces recaptured most of the north. Presidential elections were held on 28 July 2013, with a second-round run-off held on 11 August, and legislative elections were held on 24 November and 15 December 2013.